Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in numerous processes that are important for general homeostasis. VDRs are found in a variety of skin cells, including monocytes, dendritic skin cells, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D receptor is a nuclear receptor that is stimulated by the calciferol hormone. It is a receptor that varieties a heterodimer with the retinoid X radio. The joining of the vitamin D complex when using the RXR produces the activation of a couple of intracellular signaling pathways. These kinds of pathways generate immediate replies independent of the transcriptional response of target genetics.

VDRs are likewise thought to mediate the effects of calciferol on bone tissue maintenance. This is supported by the correlation between cuboid density and VDR radio alleles in humans. In addition , a number of VDR target genes have been completely identified, including calcium-binding necessary protein, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies have got investigated the word of VDR in various tissues. For instance, confocal microscopy has demonstrated VDR indivisible staining in human emballage cells. In addition , VDR has been diagnosed in white colored matter oligodendrocytes. These studies have generated the hypothesis that calcium-dependent platelet activation may be controlled by speedy non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been suggested as a factor in regulation of calcium homeostasis in the intestinal tract. However , the exact device is not known. Various elements, including environmental exposures and genetic factors, may regulate VDR manifestation.